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During the Second Temple, the Greek empire reigned (over Israel),1 and they (the Greeks) passed decrees against the Jews and (tried) to erase their religion, and did not allow them to carry out Torah (study) or the commandments. They put their hands on their property and their daughters. They entered the Temple, destroyed and made the pure unclean. The Jews were in great distress because of them and were much oppressed, until the G-d of their fathers had mercy on them, delivering them from their hands and saving them. Then overcame, the sons of the Hasmonean High Priest, (the Greeks) and killed them and saved the Jews from their hands. They appointed a king from the Priests, and the kingdom of Israel was restored for more than 200 years until the destruction of (the) second (Temple). When the Jews overcame their enemies and destroyed them, it was the 25th of Kislev2 when they entered the Sanctuary (inner room) and did not find pure (olive) oil in the Temple, except one jar sealed with seal of the High Priest, and it did not contain enough to light except for one day only. But they lit from it the lamps of the Menorah3 for eight days, until they could crush olives and produce a (new quantity) of pure oil. For these reasons, decreed the Sages of that generation that these eight days that begin on the 25th Kislev, will be days of joy and praise. One lights on them lamps at evening at the entrance to the houses, every evening of the eight nights to show off and demonstrate the miracle. These days are called ''Hanukah'' that is to say ''they rested'' (chanu) on the ''25'' ('th of the month) because on the 25th they rested from their enemies. and also because of those days they (re)-dedicated the house (Temple) which their foes had defiled. Also some say that it is a commandment to increase slightly the festive meals on Hanukah. Another reason is because the work of (building) the Sanctuary (in the desert) was completed in these days. One should tell one's children the story of the miracles that were done for our fore-fathers in those days, (see Josephus) However, these meals are not considered as part of the commandment unless one says at the meal songs of praise. One should increase charity in these Hanukah days, for this can help mend any defects in our souls. This charity, should be given particularly to poor Torah scholars. (KSA 139:1)
1) 352 BCE until 70 CE
2) 139 BCE
3) The Menorah was made of gold and had seven branches.
Much has been written about the relatively minor differences between the Aseres Hadibros given by Hashem in Parshas Yisro and those repeated in this weeks Parsha. Some of the commentaries add beautiful thoughts and reasons for these distinctions. Nevertheless, we cannot lose sight of the fact that in something as significant as the Aseres Hadibros, each word, each letter requires the utmost concentration in study and analysis so that any slight changes are not glossed over or Chas V'Shalom, lost on us.
In the final commandment, Lo Sachmod, there are three such changes. First, in this weeks Parsha we are told initially “not to covet your neighbors wife and not to desire your friends house”. (Vaeschanan, 5:18) In Yisro however, we are first told not to covet your neighbors house and then not to covet his wife. (Yisro 20:14) Further, in this weeks prohibition an additional instruction of “not desiring” is added to the already existing one of not to “covet”. Finally, in this weeks Parsha, an additional example of things we shall not covet is added to the list of house, wife, servants, donkeys, oxen and all that he has. Specifically, in this week we add “his field”. Relatively small differences but significant nonetheless. What is the Torah trying to tell us with these subtle changes?
In order to appreciate these variances, it is important, as always, to take in the context and the audience to whom the commandments were addressed. In Shemos, Bnei Yisroel were just recently taken out of Mitzrayim. Their most important focus was on becoming individuals again, with their own material processions, instead of slaves. Hence the emphasis on your neighbors “house”. Indeed, the mepharshim point out that the men in Mitzrayim were so worn out from their hard work as slaves that their wives had to go out into the fields to entice them to have children. It's no wonder that coveting their neighbors wife was relegated to second position. This is born out all the more by the inclusion in our Parsha of not coveting his “field”. Only now, as Klal Yisroel was preparing to enter Eretz Yisroel and have land of their own, was this specification germane.
There is a profound lesson here to be absorbed. When B'nei Yisroel left Mitzrayim, their existence as slaves until then left them with almost nothing to covet. Developing a sense of self or identifying possessions was what was desired. Now, after 40 years of having their daily needs taken care of by Hashem, their minds were freed to wander about other more expansive wants. Therefore, they were cautioned against more base and more deplorable thoughts. Human nature is such that the more we have, the more we want. We need not give in to this destructive instinct. Quite the opposite. By simply taking time to appreciate what we have we can counter this most base of instincts. We all have good in our lives. We also all have challenges. Every day we need to appreciate what we have and take the time to enjoy and bask in it, instead of looking at what is in someone else’s basket.
 The Ramban distinguishes coveting from desiring in that coveting means actually taking certain steps to acquiring that which one wants whereas desiring is just the thought of the acquisition.